Mihajlovic beberapa pemain baru di tim sangat prihatin

M88 Perjalanan China ac Milan telah berakhir, masing-masing, dan dua klub yang pertandingan pemanasan, adalah saingan kota Inter Milan dan Real Madrid Galacticos, dalam adu penalti antara Mihajlovic memimpin tim kalah Real Madrid , tapi 1: 0 kemenangan atas saingan lama di Serie a Italia, dalam sebuah wawancara setelah pertandingan, pelatih kepala tim Michal beberapa pemain … Continue reading “Mihajlovic beberapa pemain baru di tim sangat prihatin”

M88 Perjalanan China ac Milan telah berakhir, masing-masing, dan dua klub yang pertandingan pemanasan, adalah saingan kota Inter Milan dan Real Madrid Galacticos, dalam adu penalti antara Mihajlovic memimpin tim kalah Real Madrid , tapi 1: 0 kemenangan atas saingan lama di Serie a Italia, dalam sebuah wawancara setelah pertandingan, pelatih kepala tim Michal beberapa pemain difokuskan pada pujian, ia berpikir saat ini klub telah membawa Calabria, dan Ellis, dilakukan dengan baik.
Mihajlovic beberapa pemain baru M88.com di tim sangat prihatin 
musim depan tidak mengesampingkan kemungkinan untuk membuat Serie A debut di saat yang sama, pemain penting dari tim Montolivo, tim masih memainkan peran penting di liga Serie A Italia selain awal malam, akan 23 Agustus dilakukan pembuka, karena di tangan Inzaghi mengambil pointer, Milkha segera menempatkan sistem taktis nya kembali ditanamkan ke klub ini dari Milan, ia juga membawa sebuah metode pelatihan baru , telah dikritik karena sebelum tuntutan fisik Inzaghi pada pemain tidak cukup.
Musim ini juga akan menggantikan lineup awal, musim baru dimulai beberapa pertandingan pemanasan sangat penting, ini adalah kesempatan penting untuk benar-benar Mihajlovic, Mihajlovic sangat optimis bahwa musim baru telah sepenuhnya ac milan menggantikan line-up, membuat tiga pertama liga musim depan prestasi saya pikir tidak ada masalah, hanya sebulan, tim telah meningkatkan tingkat hirarki, tetapi pelatih tidak takut untuk bersaing dengan Juventus, sejarah yang sebenarnya pada, ac Milan jauh lebih kuat dari Juventus klub, yang telah selama hampir 100 tahun, saya pikir Milkha jatuh hanya sementara.

Sua decisão foi rapidamente justificado como ele logo se tornou a estrela stand-out em uma equipe explosiva EUA

Sua decisão foi rapidamente justificado como ele logo se tornou a estrela stand-out em uma equipe explosiva EUA.
Uma compilação de vídeo YouTube de sportingbet seus melhores momentos com uma camisa de rugby já acumulou cerca de sete milhões de visualizações, mas com o aparecimento de speedster Sul Africano Seabelo Senatla e vencedor da Copa do Mundo Bryan Habana transferência de mais de sevens, é Isles ainda o homem mais rápido no rugby? “Ohhh sim, sem dúvida”, ele brinca. “Mas esses caras são muito rápido …” Depois de os EUA terminou em sexto nas duas últimas posições Sevens World Series, Isles está confiante de que ele e seus compatriotas podem garantir uma medalha no Rio. “Eu acho que uma medalha é uma meta razoável, eu sei que podemos fazê-lo”, diz ele. “Se começar a colocar tudo em conjunto, continuar a trabalhar duro e ficar melhor a cada dia, em seguida, sem dúvida podemos fazer isso acontecer.” Isles perdeu de Março de Vancouver Sevens em sportinget uma tentativa de ressuscitar sua carreira corrida e ganhar um lugar no atletismo roster da equipe dos EUA. Ele competiu nos EUA Indoor Track & Field Championships em Oregon, chegando em quinto lugar na final de 60 metros com um tempo de 6,67 segundos.
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Marcus Rashford: Man Utd striker menandatangani kontrak baru sampai 2020

Striker Manchester United 18 tahun Marcus Rashford telah menandatangani kontrak baru yang akan membuatnya tetap di Old Trafford hingga Juni 2020.
Dia mencetak dua gol pada debut pertama timnya melawan Midtjylland pada bulan Februari dan menyelesaikan musim dengan delapan gol dalam 18 penampilan.
M88 Rashford terpilih dalam skuad 26-man Inggris untuk Euro 2016 dan mencetak gol pada debutnya melawan Australia pada hari Jumat.
“Saya bersyukur karena memiliki kesempatan untuk membuktikan diri,” katanya.
“Untuk bisa bermain sepak bola di klub terbesar di dunia berarti segalanya untuk saya dan keluarga saya.”
kontrak baru Rashford ini diperkirakan senilai £ 20.000 seminggu.
wakil ketua eksekutif Inggris Ed Woodward mengatakan: “Dia masih sangat muda dan kami harus bersabar, tapi dia sedang mengembangkan dengan cara yang benar dan kami percaya ia memiliki masa depan yang besar di depannya.”
Defender Cameron Borthwick-Jackson, 19, yang suka rekan setimnya memiliki satu tahun tersisa di kontraknya, juga menandatangani kontrak baru yang akan membuatnya tetap di klub sampai 2020.
Ada pilihan untuk memperpanjang kedua penawaran – mengumumkan tiga hari setelah manajer baru Jose Mourinho bergabung dengan United pada kontrak tiga tahun – dengan satu tahun lebih lanjut.
Setelah mencetak dua gol pada debut Inggris di Liga Europa,M88 Taruhan Sport Rashford mengulangi prestasi di pertandingan pertama Premier League tiga hari kemudian.
Dia juga menemukan bersih hanya 138 detik menjadi penampilan internasional pertamanya senior, membuatnya pemain termuda yang mencetak pada debut Inggris.
remaja diwakili dalam negosiasi dengan anggota keluarga, dengan saran dari Chris dan Wayne Welbeck, saudara dari mantan Inggris meneruskan Danny, yang kini bermain untuk Arsenal.

lebih Masuk: http://www.shwxcs.com/
                   http://www.cimcsouth.com/

Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. Launches Website Showcasing Tea Farming Transparency

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

(Nr Marlborough, Wiltshire)– According to doctors, tea offers a variety of benefits for a person who drinks it on a regular basis. Tea has anti-inflammatory benefits as well as antioxidant properties. Those who drink tea are at a lower risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Making tea without additives also contains very few calories, making it a healthy choice for a drink.

The downside to tea is the amount of pesticides that might be used in the production and the lack of knowing what sources were used to make the tea. For those concerned about the environment, the carbon footprint created when teas are shipped across the world is also a concern.

Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. is a fifth-generation company attempting to alleviate these concerns with their new website. In light of stories about Tea farmers being taken advantage of, pesticide use being higher than national limits, and trouble determining exactly where the tea was cultivated, this company is working to show consumers exactly where their tea is grown and how it’s cultivated and delivered to their home.

Edward Magor, spokesperson for Williamson Fine Teas Ltd., stated, “We believe everyone should know the origin of their teas. We are offering complete transparency of the process from the growing tea leaves to the cultivation, processing and shipment. Consumers can visit our website to learn everything they want to know about our teas.”

The Bush to Cup Transparency offered by Williamson Fine Teas Ltd., focuses on introducing consumers to the way tea is grown, who is growing the tea, and more. The company manages all of their farms sustainably to ensure future generations can enjoy the benefits of the fertile soils and wild forests. Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. uses the unique properties of each of the farms to grow the tea naturally, without the use of pesticides.

On the website, consumers can learn about their four farms located in the Kenyan highlands. Consumers can click on a link to each of these farms to learn about the climate, soil, and animals living in the area. The blog also reviews information consumers may want to read to learn more about tea, the benefits of tea, and the growth of the tea. 

Consumers can purchase teas directly from their website and take advantage of free shipping with a minimal purchase. The consumer can choose from a variety of flavors and can even choose tea grown at the farm they prefer. This is done by clicking on the name of the farm on the main website and taking a look at what teas are grown there.

Magor stated, “Our teas arrive in a unique elephant container. We have partnered with the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and a percentage of every elephant caddy that is sold online is donated to this trust. Tea drinkers can feel good about their contributions as they purchase the finest quality tea from our farms.”

About Williamson Fine Teas Ltd.:

Williamson Fine Teas Ltd. is a fifth-generation tea farming business committed to growing the highest-quality sustainable teas. The company strives to benefit Kenya, where their farms are located. The company has over 140 years of experience growing tea and blends fine teas completely grown on their own farms to control the quality of the product. The company is introducing their new website with an innovative bush to cup transparency program to ensure consumers know they’re receiving pesticide-free, sustainably grown teas.

Media Contact:

Edward Magor

[email protected]

Manor Farm, Little Bedwyn Estate, Little Bedwyn, Nr Marlborough, Wiltshire, SN8 3JR

3330144522

Source: http://markets.financialcontent.com/mng-lang.pasadena/news/read/30952244/Williamson_Fine_Teas_Ltd._Launches_Website_Showcasing_Tea_Farming_Transparency

Immersion is the Key to Learning English

English is a challenging language to learn. Those who try to learn English find that the many grammaticall rules are often broken, so the minute you think you have enough knowledge to speak the language well, you come across an exception to the rule. Add to that the fact that people rarely speak English correctly, and you are facing an incredibly tough challenge. The best way to learn English is to immerse yourself in the language. You can use the best online English school, pass every English lesson, and know everything about English grammar, but you will not be able to speak well unless you surround yourself with the language.

Surround Yourself with Good English Speakers

Even if you are trying to learn English online, you need to surround yourself with people who not only speak English, but also speak English well. If you know people that live near you who are native English speakers, spend time with them, and ask them to speak English when you do. If this is not possible, use your online English school as a place to go to surround yourself with English speakers and text written in English. Listen to recordings of people speaking English or talk to English speakers on the phone. This will help you learn not only proper grammar, but also correct pronunciation.

Learn a Variety of Words

If you want to be a good English speaker who can speak like a native when needed, you need to learn to speak using a variety of terms and vocabulary words. The more limited your vocabulary is, the more like a foreigner you will sound when you speak. Focus on the traditional vocabulary found in your English lessons, but also learn from native speakers. Learn how to use slang terms properly, as this is a key aspect of speaking like a native speaker. Avoid using too much slang, though, as this is tacky and can make it look as though you are trying too hard.

As you learn the language, focus not only on the words and their meanings, but also the way the words come together to make phrases. For instance, the word “kick” can mean many different things depending on how it is used in a phrase. When you say, “He kicked the ball,” you are using the word as a verb that means to strike the ball with the foot. On the other hand, you could say, “I get a kick out of that T.V. show.” This means that you enjoy the T.V. show, and has nothing to do with striking something with a foot. Learning how phrases come together in English will come with continued submersion in the language.

Start Thinking in English

Thinking in a language is the only way to truly learn it. When you can start thinking in English, you will start getting a true grasp of the language. If you have to take every English phrase you hear and translate it mentally into your native tongue, or if you must take your native tongue and translate it into English in your mind before you speak, you will find it difficult to truly grasp the language’s grammar.

Devote Enough Time to Immersion

The more time you can spend immersed in English, either through spending time with native speakers, listening to recordings of English being spoken, or reading the language, the faster you will successfully learn it. Every chance you get, interact with the language. If you are on the Internet, search English Lesson sites. If you are reading the newspaper, choose an English publication. Simply logging in to your online English school or heading to your daily English lesson is not sufficient. You must learn to think in English, and that only happens by spending quality time with the language every single day.

Varieties of English

In the days of colonization, Britain had not only expanded its belongings, but also expanded the language of the people outside the Albion. A traditional English was modified and due to this various dialects were originated on new lands, the main of which are the American and Australian ones. But later on these dialects had an impact on British English.

British English

Traditionally, British English is more formal; however, it is not considered to be homogeneous. There are three types of British English: Conservative English (the language of the royal family and parliament), Adopted Standard (Received Pronunciation or BBC English), and Advanced English. Last type is rather modified and the most influenced by other dialects.

American English

The English language underwent significant changes in America under an influence by autochthonous dialects of the Indian peoples and by many other languages in Europe. Therefore, differences in American and British English are not only in phonetics and vocabulary, but also in grammar. The American English lexical differences caused not only by cultural differences but also by Spanish and Indian languages. A lot of words have different meanings in British and American. Climate, nature, features of everyday life and political system of the U.S. gave rise to many new words and phrases that are not widely spread in the UK (moose, drugstore, etc.). At the same time, America spread some words that are entrenched in many countries (e.g. “okay” and “teenager”). American English pronunciation is characterized by some simplification (the disappearance of some vowels and consonants, the emergence of the so-called shock slip in the pronunciation). Spelling also has significant differences (programme – program, cheque – check, theatre – theater, etc.).

There are also differences in grammar, for example, in articles using, verb tenses (disappearance of Perfect Tenses in a spoken language) and using “will” instead of “shall”. Many irregular verbs in American English are regular, stable expression of many changes, etc. In general, differences between British English and American English are expressed in the vocabulary and pronunciation. American English is widely used around the world, but, nevertheless, British English, in particular, is considered to be the most universal.

Australian English

Australian English was originated in the XVIII century, during the British colonization of Australia. In contrast to American, Australian English is not exposed to any other languages except its own British (English and Irish London Cockney dialect). Australian English is called Strain (from Australian), it is allocated with three dialects (variations in pronunciation): Broad Australian, General Australian, and Cultivated Australian. Moreover, differences among native speakers of any type of pronunciation rather social than territorial. Phonetic features of Australian English is presented in vowel differences, especially in their positions, loud sounds become more closed. The contrast is low between stressed and unstressed syllables in Australian English, resulting a smoother rhythm of speech compared to British English, while at the same time stressed syllables in General Australian are higher than in RP. Also, there is a difference in intonation: in Australians it is more even.

Lexical differences within the continent are minor and relate first of all to culture, names of courses, institutions, etc. Australian English is rich in idioms (e.g. sheila – woman, bloke – man, fair dinkum – very Australian). Of course, original Australian slang is very interested too. For example, shark biscuits means “newbie surfer”, boomerang – something that must be returned, etc. Many English words in the Australian dialect acquired new significance: for example, the word bush in Australia means “forest”, due to the fact that it is difficult to use the word “forest” for the light eucalyptus forests and shrubs. Also there are some adoptions in Australian English from American one. Grammatical differences between Australian and British English are considerably discernible. For example, there are differences in the nominal forms (the word “data” is only used in plural in Australia). Auxiliary verb “shall” is used only in the motivation and interrogative forms, and the word “should” is almost replaced by the verb “would”. It is also interesting that outdated forms of alliances such as “while”, and “among” – “whilst” and “amongst” are still used in Australia. There is also accepted both forms of the words “disinterested” and “uninterested”, and the words “flammable” and “inflammable” have the same meaning.

As we can see, the differences between the three varieties of English – British, American and Australian – exist in phonetics and vocabulary, spelling and grammar. Therefore, competent translation from English into Russian (Ukrainian) requires knowledge of all the dialects’ peculiarities.

Always professional translation with considering all the cultural differences can be found at my personal website.

The Importance of English-Arabic Translation

This article is devoted to the English Arabic translation; it will lay the light on the definition of translation, the importance of English Arabic translation, the difficulty idioms impose to translators, the qualities of a good translator and the necessity for translation in general.

Translation in Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed’s words is: “the action or process of delivering from one language into another. It is the expression or rendering of sense of words, sentences, and passages etc from one language into another.” Ulm-ul-Qur’an, Dr. Hasanuddin Ahmed, I.A.S.

The Columbia Encyclopedia defines translation as the rendering of a text into another language.

Katharine Barnwell (1986, p. 8).defines it as follows: Translation is re-telling, as exactly as possible, the meaning of the original message in a way that is natural in the language into which the translation is being made.

Translation is much more than the interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language and the production of a new, equivalent text in another language , or the substitution of the words of one language with the words of another language, or the rendering of meaning of a text or whatsoever in one language into another, it is the bridge of appreciation and understanding among people of different cultural groups , it is the means of communication among different groups of people, the means of cultural exchange, the means of preserving cultural heritage of any nation, the means of forming ties and friendships among different groups of people, and the means of understanding and peace.

Human beings are after all not living alone and, every human being has the need and desire to know about one another, man tries to learn what other people are doing, how they are living, and how they have lived. We would like to know, apart from our different ethnicity, color, language, and culture, whether we share the same understanding of love, passion, sorrow, aspiration, sympathy, jealousy and many other respects of human nature. So as long as the desire to exists, translation will be the only bridge across which our aims are reached and our desire realized.
In the general sense, the goal of translation is to build bridges among different groups of people, but the goal of translation in the theoretical sense is to establish a relationship of equivalence between the source and the target language; it should ensure that both texts communicate the same message.

There has been debate as to whether translation is an art, a science, or a Skill. I think Translation is a combination of all of them. It is a science in the sense that it needs complete knowledge of the structure, grammar, semantics, and syntax and in general the make-up of the two languages concerned. It is an art since it requires artistic talent to reconstruct the original text in the form of a product that is presentable to the reader who is not supposed to be familiar with the original. It is also a skill, because it requires attention to detail the meaning and a thorough understanding of the relationship between syntax and semantics, coupled with extensive cultural background and the ability to provide the translation of something that has no equal in the target language.

Also being a human skill, it enables human beings to exchange ideas and thoughts regardless of the different languages they use. Man is endowed with the ability to convey his feelings and experience to others through language. For this process of communication man acquired both spoken language and the written language, but when human beings spread over the earth, their languages differed and they needed a means through which they can communicate and interact with each others. Thus necessity for translation to convey one’s feelings and experiences into the other language was felt.

Sometimes we ask ourselves, why is translation between English and Arabic important? Both Arabic and English are of the world great languages, in the book ‘The Spread of English, on page 77 the writer says: “the great languages of today are languages of empire, past and present. Only two, Mandarin Chinese and Russian, continue as languages of administration within single, ethno linguistically diverse states. The others -Arabic, English, French, and Spanish-are imperial legacies, having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them.”

Arabic language is one of the great world languages. there have been great languages of great empires that did not survive as a great language , like Turkish for instance, when we compare Turkish with Arabic, we find out that Arabic survived the disintegration of the Arab Islamic empire and it continues to be one of the great languages of the world till today, while the Turkish language which was the language of administration and authority in the middle east , Balkans, and different parts of the world that was under the Ottoman rule for a thousand years ,but Turkish in the words of Fishman on page 77 in the book ‘The Spread of English” ‘flowed back to Anatolia with the collapse of the ottoman empire’. But these words are not 100% accurate because Turkish is spoken all over Turkey and in Northern Cyprus, not only in Anatolia which is only a part of Turkey. Also Turkish minorities in the former Soviet Union republics, Bulgaria, Russia, Greece, and Romania use Turkish as their mother tongue. Moreover the languages of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, are all branches of the Turkic language family. Yet, no denying that Turkish language lost a lot of its importance after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.

Returning to Arabic, it is one of the six official languages adopted in The United Nations. Arabic is the language of a rich culture and civilization dating back many centuries; it was the language of Muhammad, the Messenger and Prophet of Allah (Allah is the Arabic word for God), and it is the language of the Holy Qura’an. It has produced great figures such as Averroes(Ibn-Roshd), the medieval Aristotelian philosopher; Ibn Khaldun, the first social historian; and Khalil Jibran. Between the eighth and the fifteenth centuries, the volume of literary, scholarly and scientific book production in Arabic and the level of urban literacy among readers of Arabic were the highest the world had ever known to that time. Islamic artists have used Arabic script as their principal art form for centuries; the beauty of their work will be revealed to anyone through the study of Arabic. Arabic is a member of the Semitic group of languages, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic, the language the Christ spoke. Moreover, Arabic is widely spoken; total speakers of Arabic exceed 350 million.

According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia, Arabic was also a major vehicle of culture, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy during the middle ages, that is why many European languages have also borrowed numerous words from it.

Pamela J.Farris says in her book Language arts on page 99
“English has borrowed from Arabic algebra, candy, lemon, orange, sugar, and magazine.”

Not only these words English borrowed from Arabic, but there are hundreds of other words borrowed from Arabic, there are some hundreds of the words English borrowed from Arabic in Al Mawrid English-Arabic dictionary, such as typhoon which means in Arabic 7HA’F , Spinach 3(‘F. , and sesame which means in Arabic 3E3E.

So Arabic being one of the world great languages makes translation from and into that language very important, especially English Arabic translation.

No doubt that English is a world language; nowadays it is the language of science, aviation, computing, diplomacy, and tourism. It is listed as the official or co-official language of numerous countries .As well as Arabic, it is one of the six official languages in the United Nations

Consequently, the knowledge of the English language is one of the most important tools in achieving scientific and technological knowledge; moreover it is a tool of communication between countries, different cultural groups, various companies and organizations, communities and friends.

Translation is the tool to make use of the new technology and science. Science knowledge coupled with multiple languages and cultures are increasingly important in an expanding global economy and world welfare. It is clear that Britain and the USA are the forefront of new ideas in science and technology. USA has pioneered in all fields of technology and science; accomplishments of Britain and US technology are in English, so it is very essential to know English to make use of such technology and science.

Also Political relationships, wars, and conflicts make translation so important to have access to what is going on in different parts of the world, especially Arabic English translation, as English is the language of the big powers of the world, and the Arab region is the theatre, where vital events take place at present.

No denying that English is the cornerstone of the world media, many important news sources are in English, on page 34 of the book The Spread of English the writer says: “English newspapers in non English mother-tongue countries are another indication of the world wide status of English”.

If one knows English, one can read the news and points of views of several writers around the globe, by doing so one can expand his knowledge, and get a broader outlook on the surroundings, and to look at issues with a broader perspective. In my opinion, knowing any language is an international passport specifically English.

English is also the language of communication, with the spread of internet, English appeared to be the language of communication, hundreds of millions of different races communicate with each others via the internet in English, thus English helps to strengthen ties, and make friends among different cultural groups of people on different spots of our planet.

So being the language of science technology and communication, in the age of the internet, English spread so widely, there has never been a language so widely spread in so short a time as English.

As mentioned above, both Arabic and English are great world languages, so translation between this pair of languages is important and essential because of the many reasons mentioned previously.

Translation has been and continues to be the means of cultural and knowledge exchange among people throughout history, and the means of preserving cultural heritage.

As the Islamic Arabic Empire spread, the Arabic language and, indeed, culture was enriched by contacts with other civilizations: Greeks, Persians, Copts, Romans, Indians and Chinese. During the ninth and tenth centuries, a great translation movement, centered in Baghdad, was in force, in which many ancient scientific and philosophical tracts were transposed from ancient languages, especially Greek, into Arabic. Many were enhanced by the new wisdom suggested by Arab thinkers; other texts were simply preserved, only to re-emerge in Europe during the Renaissance.
Modern European languages, such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and English owe a great debt to Arabic. The English language itself contains many words borrowed from Arabic: algebra, alchemy, admiral, genius, ghoul, mare sherbet, soda and many others. “

By the means of translation cultural heritage is preserved and new civilizations evolved and flourished; the western civilization for instance, was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific books were translated from Arabic into different European languages, and it was the core for the current western civilization.

In the book of “Muslim Contributions to World Civilization” On page 118 we will find that, “From 1154 AC to the sixteenth century, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim scholars from Western Europe and Spain translated books from Arabic into Latin in the Toledo Academy established by Alfonso, Sabio the Wise. The translations were then distributed to academic centers in Europe, where they became the basis of the Renaissance, the revival of knowledge in Europe.”

Stanwood Cobb says:” Europe was indebted for all of its beginnings in alchemy and chemistry to the chemical science of the Arabs, which reached them through translation of Arabic works into Latin. In this science, as in other arts and sciences which they practiced, they developed an objective and experimental method as opposed to the purely speculative method of the Greeks.”
“The science of algebra owes much to gifted mathematicians of the
Islamic era. Its very name proves the magnitude of this debt, for the name itself is Arabic, al gebr, “a binding together .”

“In addition to the volumes of Greek science, many scientific works of the Arabs-Avicenna, Averroes, and Rhazes in particular-were translated.”

So English-Arabic translation has been and continues to be of great importance, the causes in the past and present are only different. Currently, it is well known that English Arabic translation is increasingly becoming a topic of much concern and importance these days. Oil, strategic location, history of the Islamic and different other civilizations that took place in the Arabic region, and the current events in the Middle East on the Arab side and the western desire to possess the oil and dominate the region on the Western side, contribute to this importance. This paper highlights the importance of English Arabic translation, mainly the translation of the two word English idioms into Arabic; as English language is full of idioms native speakers of English use a lot of idioms and expressions in everyday conversations, books, newspapers, magazines, TV shows on the Internet because idioms add color to the language, but at the same time, idioms are difficult to understand because their meaning is not what it appears to be at first sight. This imposes a major difficulty to translators from English into Arabic.

For example in the Telegraph newspaper dated 19/09/2006 one of the headlines reads “Police patrols at churches stepped up in Pope Row”

The Idiom ‘step up is used in this article, the Idiom Connection defines the idiom’ step up ‘as follows “rise to a higher or more important position, be promoted”

Al Mawrid dictionary translates the idiom ‘step up’ as J2J/- J6’9A- J2/’/- J*6’9A- JF/A9- J*B/E
In the context of the previous article, the idiom ‘step up’ can be translated as – J2/’/ , it is the translation of the meaning of the idiom.

A Second example in The Sunday Times dated April 30, 2006, the Idiom ‘back down’ is used in the following articles:

Iran’s psychopath in chief, by Israel

“Britain, France, Germany and America hope to pass a resolution at the United Nations Security Council this week mandating Iran to suspend its work on uranium enrichment. If Iran refuses to back down, the security council could impose targeted sanctions.”

Also in the Mail guardian online dated 07 November 2005 we will find the headline

‘Blair to back down on anti-terror laws’

British Prime Minister Tony Blair reluctantly accepted on Monday that he would have to back down on proposed anti-terror laws that would enable police to hold people for up to 90 days without charging them.

Home Secretary Charles Clarke, announcing what amounts to a climbdown, said, however, that the new time limit would not be as short as the 28 days sought by critics of the new Terrorism Bill, which faces a parliamentary vote on Wednesday.

“We do not want to compromise on the 90 days at all. It will be a compromise with this nation’s security,” said Blair at his monthly Downing Street press conference, where he held out hope that he could yet minimise the impact.

American Heritage Dictionary of Idioms – defines the idiom’ ‘back down as ‘Reverse one’s upward course, descend. For example, When she saw the wasps’ nest on the roof, she hastily backed down the ladder. This literal usage usually refers to something one has climbed, such as a ladder or mountain. [Mid-1800s]

Al Mawrid dictionary translates the idiom ‘back down’ as –J*F’2D 9F E7D(
Also 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9 is a proper translation

In the previous articles, it can be translated as 9F J*.DJ 9F – J*1′,9, and it is the translation of the meaning of the idiom.

Idioms are one of the factors that makes translation remain a human activity; although attempts have been made to automate and computerize the translation of natural language texts, or to use computers as an aid to translation, but translation remains mainly a human activity that needs skill, intelligence, human feeling that keeps the life and spirit of the original language to the translated text, idioms pose a challenge to any translation program. Since a lot of idioms cannot be translated literally.

The right understanding of Idioms is the key to have a good translation from English into Arabic. English is full of idioms; native speakers of English use a lot of idioms and expressions in their speech and writing, in other words, native speakers of English use idioms all the time. Idioms are the grease that makes language flow, but at the same time idioms are difficult to understand because an idiom is “An expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up.” Webster’s Online Dictionary, but some are easier to guess when they have some association with the original meaning of the individual words. So the translator should be aware of the idioms.

The idiom ‘cold feet’ which the Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary defines as:”to suddenly become too frightened to do something you had planned to do, especially something important such as getting married” , whereas the American Heritage Dictionary defines the idiom ‘cold feet’ as
“Fearfulness or timidity preventing the completion of a course of action”.

It is used in an article in the guardian newspaper on Saturday March 25, 2006 as follows:

‘Iraq hostages ‘were saved by rift among kidnappers’

o Guards got cold feet after American was shot

o Returning Kember ‘failed to say thanks to rescuers’

Jonathan Steele in Amman, Ewen MacAskill and Richard Norton-Taylor

Saturday March 25, 2006

The Guardian

The British hostage Norman Kember and his two Canadian colleagues owe their freedom to a rift among their Iraqi kidnappers, a western security source close to the rescue operation said yesterday.

This idiom used in the previous article can be translated as AB/’F ‘D-E’3 DA9D 4& E’- FB5’F ‘D4,’9G #H ‘D+B) DA9D 4& E’, the translation is the paraphrase of the idiom according to definitions given above. So the right understanding of idioms is the key to translate well.

An idiom is learned and used as a single unit of language; and should be translated in the same way. To translate idioms the translator , first of all needs to recognize idioms , understand them, know the culture from which the idiom comes, the origin, the atmosphere in which it is used , then the translator should do his/her best, at first to find an equivalent or a corresponding idiom in the target language that keeps the flavor of the original, if there is not such corresponding idiom or phrase the translator analyzes the idiom and translates the meaning of the idiom in words that keep the color and flavor of the idiom in the source language

Every language is idiomatic; each language has a certain set of rules that govern the way words are put together to express facts, ideas and feelings. The rules and their exceptions are unique to the language, despite possible similarities with other languages. In this sense, a language is always idiomatic. Within this general consideration, we usually think of ‘idioms’ as unique phrases: we use them to express something that other, more general sentences can’t express just as well. It is important to learn idioms to be able to communicate well. They are also interesting to study because of the insight they give us into the language and the people who use them. These expressions originate in the history, literature, religion, and traditions typical of a certain community. For this reason, idioms reveal much of the way of thinking of a community.

Since idiomatic expressions are so frequently encountered in both spoken and written discourse, they require special attention in translation
the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines ‘idiom’ as : a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of the individual words:. This means even if one knows the meaning of each word; one may not understand the idiom itself. So we cannot translate the idioms correctly unless we understand their meaning. If we take into account the idiom ‘ New blood and translate it into Arabic (/E ,/J/) word by word, (/E ,/J/) is sometimes used in Arabic to mean young people. On one hand, it can be viewed as an equivalent, on the other hand sometimes it is hard to guess that the expression actually means ‘ people with a lot of energy or fresh ideas who are brought into an organization in order to improve it’ as defined in Cambridge advanced Learner’s dictionary, as in F-*’, ‘DJ /E ,/J/– it can mean the need for new blood in a hospital for instance, but sometimes it can be misunderstood.

Based on the previous definition in Cambridge advanced Learner’s Dictionary, the appropriate translation for this idiom is #4.’5 EDJ&) (‘D7’B) H ‘D-JHJ) H ‘D#AC’1- ‘AC’1 H 7’B’* ,/J/) .The translation here is a paraphrase.

As a matter of fact, the literal translation of an idiom is often absurd or comical. The idiom ‘Back burner ‘ literally translates into Arabic as ”D-‘1B ‘D.DAJ’

The literal translation in Arabic sounds comical. The Dictionary of English Idioms & Idiomatic Expressions defines it as follows: If an issue is on the back burner, it is being given low priority is ‘ then the right translation is -‘D EF 9/E ‘D’G*E’E-BDJD ‘D’GEJ)
sometimes The image created by the literal meaning of an idiom is comic but sometimes it can help to remember that idiom.

Here is an example of English idioms that can be easily understood from the images they evoke. The English idiom double faced translates literally in Arabic as 0H H,GJF- (with two faces) in Arabic. So the image created by this idiom helps us to remember and understand it. So we can translate it as EF’AB ‘hypocrite’ in Arabic- or -E.’/9 deceiver (in Arabic), which will be an adequate translation. The image created by the idiom double faced can make us think of a person with two faces , which means hypocrite .Even though using the images of the literal translation is an effective and fun way to learn English idioms, the literal translation alone is deceiving in many cases

The real meaning of the English idiom has to be learned in context to be correctly understood. It is necessary to study idioms within sentences. A proper example makes the meaning and the use clear. For example the idiom sitting duck which means ‘an easy target’, when we learn this idiom in a sentence as in “His arguments were so simple, she was able to knock them down like sitting ducks.” It will be easy to understand that the idiom means ‘an easy target’ and translate it into Arabic adequately, if we translate it literally in Arabic it would be (7) ,’D3) which does not make sense in Arabic, but the adequate translation is a paraphrase translation of the idiom which is G/A 3GD

Translation of ideas and meaning from one language to another leaves much freedom to the translator , but translation of idioms does not need only translation of ideas and meaning , the translator should keep the effect idioms give to the language as possible as the translator can. To translate idioms word-for-word” translation is inadequate and confusing, To translate idioms well, the translator must recognize idioms to be idioms, the translator must understand the goals and intents of the author of the original work; and the context in which idioms are used, then s/he should understand the meaning of the idioms, s/he should look it up in dictionaries, search on the web , ask native speakers, and understand the massage of the idiom and in what context it is used . It is good to find a similar idiom in Arabic that carries the same meaning of the English idiom, if the translator cannot find so it is good to parse the idiom apart into its meaning and translate the meaning.

Katharine Barnwell says: The task of the translator is to translate the meaning of the message, rather than the words.

Bible Translation, Katharine Barnwell, 1986, p. 12.

In order to have a good translation, there must be a good translator, who should be fluent in the two languages he seeks to translate between. He must understand the language which he is translating from, as well as the language in which he is translating the work into. Moreover, a good translator must specifically be a good communicator in the target language. A good translator must have the knowledge, skill and experience in this business; In fact the translator has a very serious responsibility not to change the meaning in any way. He must be careful not to add anything to the meaning, or to leave any part of the meaning. Actually the task of translator is more difficult than the writer himself, the writer is free to express his ideas and views in the way he sees suitable and in the vocabulary he likes, but the translator confines himself to the words the writer used and he must be careful not to add anything to the meaning, or to leave any part of the meaning.

Conclusion:

From what has been mentioned above, it is obvious that translation is the bridge of appreciation, love and friendship among nations, it is necessary for progress and prosperity .By the means of translation new civilizations evolved, the western civilization was established on the Arabic and Islamic civilization; scientific, books were translated from Arabic into Latin, and it was the basis for the western civilization.

English Arabic translation has been and continues to be of great importance, because both languages are great world languages, moreover current events, wars, conflicts and struggles in our world add to this importance ; English is the language of big powers and Arabic is the language of the region where conflicts take place for many reasons mentioned previously

Idioms pose a challenge to translators from English into Arabic. English is full of idioms which cannot be understood from the individual words .A translator of English idioms into Arabic needs good knowledge of the two languages and a good knowledge of both cultures .Idioms reflect culture traditions ,cultural identities and history of any nation. They give us insight into history , culture , traditions, and values, morals. So idioms reflect our common humanity through language.